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New energy vehicles in the six categories

六月 23, 2017
  

New energy vehicles refers to the use of unconventional vehicle fuel as a power source (or the use of conventional vehicle fuel, but the use of new vehicle power plant), integrated vehicle power control and drive the advanced technology, the formation of advanced technology, With new technology, new structure of the car. New energy vehicles include: hybrid cars (hev), pure electric vehicles (bev), fuel cell vehicles (fcev), hydrogen engine cars and gas vehicles, alcohol ether cars and so on.
First, the hybrid car: hybrid refers to those who use traditional fuel, accompanied by motor / engine to improve low-speed power output and fuel consumption models. According to the different types of fuel, the main can be divided into two kinds of hybrid gasoline and diesel hybrid. At present the domestic market, the mainstream of hybrid vehicles are gasoline hybrid, while the international market, diesel hybrid models are also developing very fast.
The advantages of hybrid cars are: 1, the use of hybrid power can be used in accordance with the average power to determine the maximum power of the internal combustion engine, this time in low fuel consumption, less pollution, the best working conditions. The need for high-power internal combustion engine power is insufficient, by the battery to add; load less, the surplus power can generate electricity to the battery charge, because the internal combustion engine sustainable work, the battery can continue to be charged, so the trip and ordinary cars. 2, because with the battery, you can very easily recover the brake, downhill, the idle time of energy. 3, in the bustling urban areas, can shut down the internal combustion engine, driven by the battery alone, to achieve “zero” emissions. 4, with the internal combustion engine can be very convenient to solve the large energy-saving air-conditioning, heating, defrosting and other pure electric vehicles encountered problems. 5, you can use the existing gas station refueling, no longer have to invest. 6, allows the battery to maintain a good working condition, no overcharge, over discharge, to extend its life and reduce costs.
Disadvantages: long-distance high-speed basic driving can not save fuel.
Second, pure electric vehicles: electric vehicles As the name suggests is the main use of electric vehicles, most of the vehicles directly motor-driven, part of the vehicle to install the motor in the engine compartment, there are some directly to the wheels as four motor rotor, the difficulties Lies in power storage technology. Itself does not discharge harmful gases that pollute the atmosphere, even if the power consumption is converted to power plant emissions, in addition to sulfur and particulates, other pollutants are also significantly reduced, as most of the power plant built away from densely populated cities, human injury Less, and the power plant is fixed, centralized emissions, remove all kinds of harmful emissions easier, but also has the relevant technology. As electricity can be obtained from a variety of primary energy sources, such as coal, nuclear energy, water, wind, light, heat, etc., to lift people worried about the depletion of oil resources. Electric vehicles can also make full use of the evening power consumption when the surplus power, so that power generation equipment can be fully utilized day and night, greatly improving its economic efficiency. The study shows that the same crude oil after refining, sent to the power plant, by the battery, and then by the battery-driven car, the energy efficiency than refined into gasoline, and then driven by high gasoline engine, it is conducive to energy conservation And reduce the displacement of carbon dioxide, it is these advantages, so that electric vehicle research and application of the automotive industry as a “hot spot.” Some experts believe that, for electric vehicles, the biggest obstacle is the infrastructure construction and the price of the industrialization of the process, compared with the hybrid, electric vehicles need more infrastructure support, and this is not a business can solve , The need for enterprises together with the local government departments together, will have a large-scale promotion opportunities.
Advantages: technology is relatively simple and mature, as long as there is power supply where can be charged.


Disadvantages: the current battery unit weight storage of energy is too small, but also because the electric car battery more expensive, and did not form the economic scale, so the purchase price is more expensive, as the use of cost, some trial results than the car expensive, some results only for the car 1/3, which depends mainly on the battery life and the local oil, electricity prices.
Third, the fuel cell vehicles: fuel cell vehicles refers to the hydrogen, methanol and other fuel, through the chemical reaction to generate current, rely on motor-driven cars. The energy of the battery is through the hydrogen and oxygen chemical, rather than through the combustion, directly into electrical energy or. Fuel cell battery chemical reaction process does not produce harmful products, so the fuel cell vehicles are pollution-free vehicles, fuel cell energy conversion efficiency than the internal combustion engine to 2 to 3 times higher, so from the energy use and environmental protection, the fuel cell vehicle is An ideal vehicle. A single fuel cell must be combined into a fuel cell stack in order to obtain the necessary power to meet the requirements of vehicle use.
In recent years, fuel cell technology has made significant progress. World-renowned carmakers, such as DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Toyota and General Motors, have announced plans to market fuel cell vehicles by 2004. At present, the fuel cell car prototype is being tested, fuel cell-powered transport bus in several cities in North America are ongoing demonstration projects. In the development of fuel cell vehicles there are still technical challenges, such as the integration of fuel cell packs, to improve the commercialization of electric vehicle fuel processors and auxiliary vehicle manufacturers are in the direction of integration of components and reduce component costs, and has Has made significant progress.
Compared with traditional cars, fuel cell vehicles have the following advantages: 1, zero emissions or similar zero emissions. 2, to reduce the oil leakage caused by water pollution. 3, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 4, to improve the fuel economy. 5, to improve the engine combustion efficiency. 6, running smoothly, no noise.
Four, hydrogen-powered car: hydrogen-powered car is a real zero-emission vehicles, the discharge is pure water, which has no pollution, zero emissions, rich reserves and other advantages, therefore, hydrogen car is the ideal car The alternative. Compared with the traditional power car, hydrogen-powered car costs at least 20% higher. China Changan Automobile in 2007 to complete China’s first efficient zero-emission hydrogen internal combustion engine ignition, and in 2008 Beijing auto show on the independent research and development of China’s first hydrogen-powered concept car “hydrogen.” With the gradual formation of “car society”, car ownership is constantly showing an upward trend, while oil and other resources are stretched, on the other hand, swallow a large number of gasoline vehicles continue to discharge harmful gases and pollutants. The ultimate solution is certainly not limited to the development of the automobile industry, but the new energy to replace the oil, fuel cell car four rounds quickly and quietly over the road, rut printed new energy name – hydrogen.
Almost all of the world’s auto giants are developing new energy vehicles. Electricity was once thought to be the driving force of the car, but the long charging time and weight of the battery made people gradually wary of it. And now (referring to 2009) combined with the combination of gasoline and gasoline can only temporarily alleviate the energy crisis, can only reduce but can not get rid of dependence on oil. This time, the emergence of hydrogen-powered fuel cells, as if the reconstruction of a Noah’s Ark, so that people see infinite hope from the crisis. Hydrogen for the car fuel this statement just out of scary, but in fact is well founded. Hydrogen has a high energy density, the release of energy enough to make the car engine running, and hydrogen and oxygen in the fuel cell chemical reaction occurs only water, no pollution. Therefore, many scientists predict that hydrogen as a fuel cell is the core technology of the 21st century car, its revolutionary significance for the automotive industry, the equivalent of the microprocessor as important as the computer industry.
Advantages: emissions are pure water, driving does not produce any pollutants. Disadvantages: hydrogen fuel cell costs are too high, and hydrogen fuel storage and transportation in accordance with the current technical conditions is very difficult, because the hydrogen molecules are very small, easy to escape through the storage device shell. In addition to the most deadly problem, the extraction of hydrogen requires the use of electrolyzed water or the use of natural gas, so the same need to consume a lot of energy, unless the use of nuclear power to extract, or can not fundamentally reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
V. Gas vehicles: Gas vehicles refer to vehicles that use compressed natural gas (cng), liquefied petroleum gas (lpg) and liquefied natural gas (lng) as fuel. In recent years, governments around the world are actively seeking to solve this problem, began to adjust the car fuel structure. Gas vehicles because of its good discharge performance, adjustable car fuel structure, low operating costs, technology is mature, safe and reliable, so the world recognized as the most ideal alternative fuel vehicles.
At present, the gas is still the world’s mainstream automotive fuel alternative, in China’s alternative fuel vehicles accounted for about 90%. The goal of the United States is that by 2010, 7% of the cars in the field of cars use natural gas, 50% of the taxis and buses to a dedicated natural gas car; by 2010, the number of German natural gas vehicles will reach 100,000 to 400,000 , The filling station will be increased from the current 180 to at least 300 seats. Industry experts point out that the role of alternative fuels is to reduce and eventually eliminate the pressure from the tight supply of oil and the negative impact on economic development. Recently, China will continue to use compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol gasoline as an alternative fuel for cars. Whether the vehicle can be used for alternative fuels depends on the resources, distribution and availability of alternative fuels in China, the maturity of alternative fuel production and application technologies, and the reduction in environmental pollution. The scale, investment, production cost and price of alternative fuels Determines its competitiveness with petroleum fuels; automobile production structure and design improvements must be compatible with the fuel. To replace the fuel gas will be China and the world the inevitable trend of automobile development. China should organize forces as soon as possible to develop a national gas vehicle policy. Taking into account China’s energy security is mainly the state of the oil, including the development of gas vehicles, including a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, is an urgent matter, according to national conditions should be done: First, to limit the price of gas, so that between oil and gas prices To maintain a reasonable price difference, such as Sichuan Province, Chongqing City, oil, air temperature difference, you can ensure the moderate development of gas vehicles; Second, in view of the gas station investment, long payback period, the Government appropriate to give some subsidies, The gas price and the car users because of gas savings fuel costs between the adjustment of the distribution of benefits; Third, the gas station income tax, should refer to the high-tech industry development zone policy, to take the tax reduction policy of three minus three; In addition, the gas station site, according to major projects and environmental protection industry treatment, special matters, do not prevaricate with each other, passing, and actively use foreign advanced station Standard, scientific to determine the safety distance of fire, saving land resources.
6, bio-ethanol cars: ethanol commonly known as alcohol, popular said, the use of ethanol as fuel vehicles, can also be called alcohol car. The history of the use of ethanol instead of oil fuel has been long, both from the production and application of the technology has been very mature, recently due to oil resources, automobile energy diversification tends to intensify, ethanol car also referred to the agenda. At present, the world has more than 40 countries, varying degrees of application of ethanol cars, and some have reached a large-scale promotion, the status of ethanol cars increasing. The use of ethanol in cars can improve the octane number of the fuel, increase the oxygen content, so that the combustion of the car cylinder more complete, can reduce the emissions of tail gas.
Ethanol car fuel applications: First, blending, ethanol and gasoline blending applications. In the mixed fuel, ethanol and volume ratio to “e” said, such as ethanol accounted for 10%, 15%, then e10, e15 to represent, at present, accounting for ethanol accounted for the main position. Two, pure burning, that is, a single burning ethanol, e100% can be used, the current application is not much, are the pilot phase; Third, the denatured fuel ethanol, ethanol dehydration, and then add the denaturant and ethanol, which is part of the experimental application Step four; flexible fuel, refers to the fuel can be used gasoline, but also can use ethanol or methanol and gasoline mixture of fuel, you can also use hydrogen, and can switch at any time. Such as Ford, Toyota are in the test of flexible fuel vehicles.

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